San Francisco is Home to Popping, Low Riders & the Filmore Strut

I’m loving the way the Bay Area gets down on the dance tip..With so much of the music corporatized and dumbed down its refreshing to see true Hip Hop expression manifest itself through the dancing..

Peep out how these folks Paulie Rhythms & Boy Wonder of Soul Sector get down on the strutting and popping tip in the Mission one afternoon with Mikey Disko & Donnie Strutt in a low rider…Shout out to my former TA at SF State and local emcee Mandeep Sethi for putting this video together and capturing the magic.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rlXigzhiLRk

US Tax Dollars at Work: Egyptian Army Viciously Beat Unarmed Girl…

Many of us recall last January when the Arab Spring broke out in Egypt, we cheered as Egyptian dictator Hosni Mubarak was ousted as many talked about how the army was revered.

After Mubarak stepped down, most of us here in the US went about our day-to-day lives thinking that Egypt’s darkest days were over.. Because many of us here in the US pay little attention to foreign affairs, we were caught off guard when we ‘discovered’ that things were on and popping once again in Tahir Square..

The truth of the matter was all those thousands of people we saw early on in the square never left. Large demonstration numbering in the tens of thousands with demands for full equality never ceased. The only that ceased was CNN and other network news coverage….Sadly the young folks in Egypt who ousted Mubarak suddenly found themselves facing a new and more deadly foe, the once revered Egyptian Army.

Beatings and torture increased as more and more young folks determined to have a brighter tomorrow boldly faced down an institution that is pretty much funded with American tax dollars. In seeing the latest wave of brutality we see the army tearing down and burning tents that have now ‘occupied’ the square and we also have come to understand why they have been hell-bent on removing people from Tahir Square..

Tahir was as a gathering place was fueling the revolution.. It was more than symbolic it was and has been the proverbial town square.. In looking at the latest footage of an out of control army viciously beating and stomping out unarmed women, if such scenes will not soon be visiting us here at home.. Whats most interesting is that as the brutality you see unfolding in the videos below continue, the media controlled by the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) is blaming the brutality on Egyptian protestors. Many who are into 30 second soundbites pick up on this and run with it, refusing to believe that those designed to protect the people would harm the people. Here many of us wanna hide from the fact that our money is paying for oppression all over the globe. Its hard pill for many to swallow..

Here is a you tube playlist of over 120 videos showing the brutality being waged against Egyptian demonstrators..

http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLF4AA350FC45ED5E8

Unknown unarmed woman being brutally beaten by a horde of SCAF soldiers.. warning some of this may be quite disturbing..

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P5IiKfU0n44

Egyptian Army using live rounds to clear out Tahir Square

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=bTnETBYusk8

Our interview with a young woman named Al-Shimaa’ Haidar from Egypt who is now in the states.. She gives agreat overview of whats been going on in Egypt since Mubarak was ousted and contrasted her experiences in Tahir with the Occupy Movements here in the states which she’s been a part of..

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=urk0CNG5fD8

Editorial: Should We Occupy or Decolonize?

Here’s some thoughts to the debate around the use of term Occupy vs Decolonize that’s been taking place at some of the Occupy sites Most recently here in Oakland.

The term ‘Occupy‘ is a loaded word that has long been problematic in many communities of color. To put it simply many have long felt they have been the victims of Occupation…. Those of Native background understand that Occupy has led to genocide. During the Civil Rights and Black Power struggles of the past we’ve heard term Occupy as one that rallied people together..This was especially true with the Black Panthers who noted that the police were ‘occupying forces in our community….With all that being said, in the end, one can see why there’s been a push for name change..

On the flip side, many feel that this a movement that is growing and folks know the name Occupy..Like it or not, its an identifiably brand now. From here to South Africa there are over 1300 Occupy Movement sites and damn near all including the ones in South Africa use the term ‘Occupy’.. The question arises why change the name midstream?

The attempt of those in the Occupy Movement was not to use any term that would be incendiary… If anything the term was used to signify reclaiming space, taken over by the 1%… In the case of Wall Street, it was recognizing that those financial institutions had been cut off to the 99% and hence there was a need to ‘Occupy’ that space in all dimensions..

In a recent discussion someone once noted that we have long taken terms once offensive and changed the meaning, why can’t the same be applied to Occupy. In the past folks have fought vigorously to take offensive terms like ‘Queer‘ in the Gay community and flip them. The word ‘Nigger‘ has been argued to no longer be an offensive term but now one that is a term of endearment. Efforts to shut down those words have been met with scorn, ridicule and folks claiming those taking offense are out of touch.. Can that happen with the term Occupy? Can it be flipped?

There is no ignoring the fact that the word Occupy cuts deep in many communities and last week in Oakland there was a push to change the name.. from Occupy to Decolonize.. A vote was taken and 63% voted yes to name change vs the 37% who opposed. 90% is needed for a measure to pass at a General Assembly in Oakland.

In Seattle a similar discussion unfolded last month.. The proposal to change the name was also defeated, but a statement was issued which can be found http://occupyseattle.org/blog/2011-10-25/declaration-decolonizeoccupy-seattle.

In New Mexico similar discussions and proposals were put forth as outlined http://www.dailykos.com/story/2011/10/13/1025832/-Indigenous-People-of-OccupyBurque-Challenge-the-Term-Occupy-%28Photo-Diary%29

One of the concerns raised was that folks who came out to push the Decolonize proposal in Oakland were not regular attendees of GAs.. However, many if not all are long time activists in the community who been fighting the 1% long before there was any sort of Occupy Movement..

Also from the footage shown in the video below, many have been down at GAs in the past and in support of Occupy Movement..So it’s not like we have a group of folks who just showed up on the scene..What wasn’t shown in the film were those who don’t want to change the name.. Contrary to popular belief, quite a few were people of color who are down at GAs all the time.. so it’s not an across the board black or white issue..

The other criticism is most people don’t understand what the term Decolonization means… I know from talking to students in my class it’s not a term that most are aware of… Does an unfamiliar name kill the momentum of a movement just started? Why not take a bold stance, change the name and use this as a learning opportunity? After all the term Occupy within two months has become part of the American lexicon, can’t the term Decolonize follow the same trajectory?

In any case, this is an important discussion and hopefully it continues with the aim of building community, raising awareness and opening hearts and minds.. Will such discussions at time be contentious? Absolutely, but what political discussion in the city has not been?

It was just last month that folks in various Occupy sites had to grind it out around discussions of Violence vs Non violence and the diversity of tactics.. One result was folks getting educated to what Anarchists are about. One got to understand that among those who identify as Anarchists/ Black Bloc there’s a politic, various perspectives and a movement that’s been around for long time and is not centered around simply breaking windows. In short people were able to have their horizons broadened.. And yes, the debates were testy, the discussions not always pretty, but necessary..

The discussion is the term Occupy vs Decolonization is just as important in fact it may be even more because of the sheer numbers of people who live in cities like Oakland who are affected by 1% economic policies who are being urged to join the Occupy Movement, but have hesitated because the a bothersome term..

What I personally have found problematic is how folks have been dismissive of this concern.. There have been some, that have expressed indifference and impatience with both the proposal and discussion. Some have suggested that this is slowing momentum and they didn’t show up to be apart of Occupy to debate name changes.. I say that’s the fault line where everything comes to halt and we work it out.. That’s where the real work needs to be done. Wall Street and their 1% cronies are not going anywhere…

Healing and understanding how that 1% and its tactics of divide and conquer has resulted in class privilege and lots of negative presumptions is something that needs to be addressed immediately and for as long as it takes…To not do so will have us all fall victim to some of the same tactics that netted us behind the proverbial 8 ball in the past.

One of the strength in the Occupy Movement has been the forging new relationship and building new alliances. That’s not something that can be easily packaged and explained in a neat 30 second soundbite that we all immediately get, but as those relationships take hold, folks involved start to understand the importance of them and how its essential for any and all work moving forward.

We often talk about having a world devoid of ism and schisms..Many find that desirable. In order to get there will require some long hard soul searching discussions. Its the birthing pains of new world..That’s the challenge before us lets embrace it with courage and whole lotta love.

written by Davey D

http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=r_s3X0uW9Ec

2nd Amendment Remedies Won’t Save America

Yeah, I know it’s not really news anymore when a Republican running for election puts his or her foot in their mouth. The latest gaffe comes from Florida Senate candidate Mike McCalister, who obviously didn’t learn from Sharron Angle’s failed Senate run last year, when he opened his big mouth. McCalister, speaking at the Palms West Republican Club, stated:

“I get asked sometimes where do I stand on the Second and 10th Amendment, and I have a little saying,” he declared. “We need a sign at every harbor, every airport and every road entering our state: ‘You’re entering a 10th Amendment-owned and -operated state, and justice will be served with the Second Amendment.’”

Can you just see the Tea Party audience cheering at the thought of someone violating their interpretation of state rights being shot in the head? On Veterans Day, where we honor people who have made the ultimate sacrifice to protect the United States shouldn’t we be even more hesitant about resorting to violence? Didn’t that cowboy mentality get us stuck in two wars that have cost us trillions of dollars and more importantly thousands of lives?

To insinuate that someone is infringing on states rights and therefore needs to be “taken care of”, is to encourage domestic terrorism like what was recently being planned by militia members in Georgia. That type of “leadership” won’t save America, it will bring this country to ruin.

 

This post is written as part of the Media Matters Gun Facts fellowship. The purpose of the fellowship is to further Media Matters’ mission to comprehensively monitor, analyze, and correct conservative misinformation in the U.S. media Some of the worst misinformation occurs around the issue of guns, gun violence, and extremism, the fellowship program. The fellowship program is designed to fight this misinformation with facts.

A Tale of Two Colleges: Unrest over Fees, Unrest over a Shady Football Coach

Alameda County Sheriffs Beat Cal Berekely Students

Here’s a tale of two colleges…Not just any college, but two of the nation’s most prestigious...UC Berkeley and Penn State University. This is where the best and the brightest among us attend school.

This is an interesting tale, that clearly spells out this nation’s dysfunctional. What took place yesterday, Nov 9 2011 on two campuses 3ooo miles apart is an indication of where our priorities are as a nation and just how out of touch and diabolical the 1% is…

Take a look at the video below. It shows students from the University of California at Berkeley, peacefully protesting. They wanted to set up tents and do an Occupy Movement on camp to bring attention to the outrageous fee hikes hitting students over the past couple of years. Thus far fees have increased a whooping 53%… There are proposals before the board of regents to raise fees an addition 81%.. yes you read that correctly 81%.

Whats going on at Cal is there are folks, many of them bankers who sit on

Richard Blum

the Board of Regents who feel that state universities should be privatized. One of the main people pushing this plan is Richard Blum who is the husband to California US senator Diana Feinstein.

We should note that when Blum went to Cal it was free.. When I went to Cal it cost $200 per semester. Today students pay a whooping 12k in tuition..

Here’s how police treat peaceful protesters. They beat Cal students with batons, and arrest 37. The beatings were excessive and brutal.. The videos show it all..

Notice there are no bottles, rocks, bricks or paint being thrown.. Notice there are no windows being busted. Notice these students are not swarming, causing dangerous situation or goading the cops..Notice these students are ‘dirty hippies’, ‘Black bloc anarchists’, saggin’ pants wearing thugs or any other number of stereotypes hoisted on those who wish to protest an egregious wrong.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=buovLQ9qyWQ&feature=youtu.be

We’ll show you another angle of this outrageous behavior just in case one wants to suggest that camera angle was off or we had slick editing going on.. This footage is from the campus newspaper, The Daily Cal.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEcqsLyX-vI&feature=youtu.be

Penn State Students Riot

Now lets take a trip to the other side of the country to University Park, Pennsylvania where Penn State sits.. As many of y’all know Penn State has been embroiled in huge child abuse sports related scandal. It centers around long time assistant coach Jerry Sandusky who has been hit with a whooping 40 counts of child sexual abuse. In short Pedophilia.

That in itself is beyond horrible,. but if that’s not enough, we come to find out that Sandusky’s alleged abuses have taken place over the past decade and was likely to have been known to university officials as well as famed head football coach Joe Paterno. Its been reported that Sandusky was spotted raping a 10-year-old and instead of calling police, Paterno was called. Instead of him calling the police, another higher up was called. The who saga is heart-wrenching.

To make a long story short, the Board of Trusties decided to basically clean house. They fired Paterno as well as the university President Graham Spanier. One would think that’s a great first step toward healing, but apparently Penn State Students didn’t get the memo and decided to riot. They flipped over a TV news van and went ape shit..Whats the end result for Penn State students who obviously were more concerned about Joe Paterno a child molester protector, then the well-being of all those abused kids? No arrests, No beatings.. It was just a case of kids being kids..

Peep the video and compare the lack of beatings for Penn State students rioting vs Cal students

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vXHxbCgg3o

It’s hard to explain to young students today, why folks were flipping vans and rioting because of Joe Paterno being fired. Were they upset about the sexually abused kids? Why no arrests for the outrageous act of flipping a TV van? Why were peaceful protestors at Cal beaten? I guess the message is clear.. Mess with our money get beat and carted off to jail. Mess with the kids and its all good.

Return to Davey D’s Hip Hop Corner

Rest in Peace Heavy D-A True Renaissance Man for Hip Hop

RIP heavy D

Needless to say this has been a tough week.. I don’t care what anyone says or how hard they act death takes a toll especially when its unexpected..That’s been the case all this week as we lost 3 iconic figures.. and while I understand that commentator Andy Rooney, boxing great Joe Frazier and golden era rap star Heavy D weren’t family members or folks in our immediate circles, they were important backdrops to our world.. For many they help define it. Their deaths can’t easily be shook, nor should they be.

Heavy D was a big part of Hip Hop. He helped shape it… Prior to Heavy D overweight men both in Hip Hop and the world in general for the most part were depicted as cartoonish..I think back to the days of the Fat Boys and recall when they first came out in the mid 80s it was all about them being comedic.

Heavy D flipped the script redefined what being big meant.. He made the big man sexy.. He made the big man fashionable.. He made the big man someone who can get on stage and dance with the best of them…Say what you will, but Heavy laid the ground work for artists like Biggie and Big Pun to bless the mic while being large and in charge while having much flava.

Heavy D opened doors…First he put his hometown Money Earnin’ Mt Vernon, which is right outside the Bronx, on the map. He helped bring his cousin producer Pete Rock to national prominence..

He did a song w/ which I think was the only in studio collabo w/ the late 2Pac and Notorious BIG called Let’s get It On..

Also as was pointed out by the tribute to Heavy D penned by AllHipHop, Heavy was the first to feature Biggie in a 1993 classic cut called A Bunch of Niggas.

Heavy was one of the first rappers to ever spit verses with the King of Pop Michael Jackson on his song Jam

Heavy opened doors on the acting tip being one of the first rappers outside of Fresh Prince (Will Smith) to have recurring role on a TV show..Him and Tone Loc were featured in the series Roc back in the early 90s..Later Heavy would have a recurring role in the TV series headed up by Queen Latifah called ‘Living Single‘. of course all of Heavy D’s acting opportunities came in the wake of him doing the theme song for the hit variety show In Living Color

Some note that Heavy D and his crew helped bring serious shine to a new fledging Coca Cola clothing line when they wore it in their debut video Mr Big Stuff. As was noted in this article HERE

The Murjani family who were the licensee of Coca-Cola apparel at this time, should really thank Heavy D & The Boyz for this free commercial and Product Placement spot. During the Golden era of hip-Hop this song and video helped mold the image of streetwear fashion of the time as well as helped propel Coca-Coal apparel to a $250 million dollar company.

What a lot of people didn’t know was the head men’s wear designer for the apparel licensee was a young man by the name of Tommy Hilfiger. After the brand dissolved due to poor management, brand quality control and the families rumored exuberant lifestyle. Tommy went to start his own brand named after his self a year later in 1988. Now the rest is history.

In his sudden passing,which reports are saying was due to respiratory failure, I think folks will rediscover his catalogue and have new appreciation for his body of work and him as a performer. We listed some of our favorite cuts and videos below..

In closing the few times I met Heavy D he was a cool dude..Very humble, smart and peaceful. I recall back in 89 how many of us in the Bay Area got upset with him because of a huge riot that broke out at a concert at the Oakland Coliseum…

Heavy D was opening for MC Hammer and he refused to perform until the they dimmed the lights. After some back and forth with him again stressing his refusal to perform, about 30 cats rushed the stage and started what would wound up being one of the worse concert fights in Bay Area history..It was total mayhem that lasted more than hour. When all was said and done, folks were mad at Heavy D and blamed hi for the drama..

It was an incident he was deeply sorry for. He later noted that he wanted to give the fans a good show and thought the sound people were trying to short change the audience. He was attempting to side with the people and had no idea that the lights were kept on to weed out trouble makers..

Seeing him evolve over the years as an actor and performer has been a gift for all of us in Hip Hop..

May Heavy D Rest in Power.

Overweight Lover’s in the House

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eXco_ity0fw&feature=related

Mr Big Stuff

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TSRyCMExqk4&feature=relmfu

U Cant See What I can See

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J5uqPUZxZHg&feature=related

Blue Funk

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5vw9TUnECHE&feature=related

Don’t Curse

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7iztp036z54

Black Coffee

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g_9Nuf8xUcg

Somebody Who Loves Me (Arsenio Hall show)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mQTWfcDaePo

Let’s Get It On w/ 2Pac, Notorious BIG & Grand Puba

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GN8oZ4NyffI

On Point w/ Big Pun and 8Ball G

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAB8ncSq6wo

Jam w/ Michael Jackson

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iZqYCh7T85g&feature=fvst

Jam Session w/ Notorious BIG

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eOoSx30NGw8

Living Color Theme Song

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J_M_2PyJQcU

Return to Davey D’s Hip Hop Corner

UConn Denies “Occupy” Artist the Right to Free Speech

I was recently invited to perform at the University of Connecticut on November 4th as the principal performer for a “Political Awareness Rally”. About a week before the event I got an email from the organizer, who ironically I met at Occupy Wall St, saying people were concerned about my performance, particularly the song “Occupy (We the 99).”  I thought this was very strange because this is supposed to be an institution of higher learning that welcomes all types of ideas, plus the event was a rally for political awareness. The organizer said he would not censor me, but if I performed it I might not get paid. Then I received an email directly from the comptroller of the Undergraduate Student Government saying specifically I could not perform “Occupy (We the 99).”

I initially agreed to perform only a set of songs the University of Connecticut deemed “not political” because the event had already been advertised around campus and didn’t want to disappoint my fans by not showing up. I also didn’t want to let down the organizers who did a lot of hard work in putting the event together. But when I arrived at the University of Connecticut I had a change of heart. As I looked around the crowd I began to think of all the people around the world occupying for a better tomorrow, being arrested and brutalized by police, sleeping in the cold and rain, sacrificing comfort for freedom. I knew at that moment I had to perform the song, “Occupy (We the 99)” as well as other “political” songs like “Real Gangstas” (about the Wall St bankers), even if it meant I would not get paid. At some point in this movement all of us are going to have to make sacrifices, if we truly want to see real change. The 1% control the 99% with promises of money, access, and comfort; we have to put our own souls above all three.

Sincerely,

Jasiri X

 

Hip-Hop has Officially Been Occupied!

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Filmed live at Occupy Wall Street and Occupy Pittsburgh by Director Paradise Gray, Jasiri X reconnects with super producer Cynik Lethal to provide a soundtrack for this growing movement that has taken the world by storm. We gonna Occupy!

Also check Davey D’s interview with Jasiri X about the Occupy Movement

George Bush and his Dad, Bomb the Throne [VIDEO]

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I know, I’m probably the only rapper that would think to remix Jay Z and Kanye West’s song Otis from their album Watch the Throne, and channel George H.W.Bush and George Bush. But when I heard Jay Z’s first line, “I invented swag” my first thought was the line “I invented crack” which brought me to George Bush Sr., who was Ronald Regan’s VP and former head of the CIA when that whole Iran Contra scandal went down. I figured he could take as much credit for crack as Jay Z can for “swag”, although I wouldn’t want to take credit for either.

The rest of the song really just wrote itself, however the parallels between the elder Bush and the Son of a Bush (shout out to Public Enemy) were pretty striking. Both illegally invaded countries (Panama and Afghanistan) and went to war with Iraq. And both had some pretty bad economic policies that hurt our communities in the worse way. It’s amazing to me how their histories have been whitewashed, especially Bush Jr. I’m surprised that dude doesn’t get hit with rotten tomatoes everytime he walks out of the house.

So check out George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush going in over the Otis instrumental on their less than stellar records as President of the United States, reminding us how America got so messed up. (Lyrics are below)

LYRICS
George H.W. Bush -I invented crack
the highest hit with them scientists in the lab
proof
not hard to find it
read Gary Webb’s Dark Alliance
Truth
New terror alert Qaddafi
We tried to kill him in the 80s but were sloppy
Bombs hit his compound every wall was knock down
his infant daughter got found dead under a rock pile

George W. Bush -Damn W bush where the hell you been
Obama’s getting blamed for all of ya failures kid
Left trillions in debt they acting like I never did
Kanye even apologized now we’re hella friends
They say I’m stupid but I was dumb before
but they so crazy they forgot about my other war
and they don’t even mention my other other war
Almost destroyed America they still love me more

George H.W. Bush
-Skull and Bones fresh
bomb you with the stealth
I’m bout to call the CIA on my self
I was the first ta
go after Saddam Hussein I tried to murk ya
bombed Iraq with those missiles air to surface
so we would have cheap oil for us to purchase
Iran contra no need for bail
I pardoned everybody they never going to jail

George W. Bush -A born again christian I’m never going to hell
my book about decisions is never going to sale
300 pages of crap it’s better in the shredder
I made history the worst president ever
I’m in Crawford with the golfers
cause of my cuts there’s just no job offers
now everybody in they house getting foreclosed
I’m done I’ll hit you ya tomorrow

George H.W. Bush -Welcome to Panama
Sent troops to get Noriega I am the law
he had pedico in kilos
we bought it from him that’s how come that we know
4000 dead it makes no difference
nobody cares cause it’s just less immigrants
no coincidence my son went from governor
to president leaving a debt so big we can’t get under from

George W. Bush -Can’t you see commercial jets flying over you
for seven minutes I froze like what the hell Imma do
put my Arab friends on planes with no kinda proof
even though they said the highjackers were Saudi too
Then I let Osama escape like the hell with it
so I could invade Iraq with fake intelligence
and over 6,000 troops died
but hey keep being mad at the new guy

Even with Troy Polamalu, Pittsburgh has Safety Issues

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Most people when they hear about Pittsburgh think of one thing…the Steelers. Unless you’ve lived here or visited the neighborhoods of Homewood, the Hill District, or parts of the Northside (to name a few), you probably don’t know about the level of violence in Pittsburgh. If you watched our video “America’s Most Livable City” you might assume that a city with the poorest Black community in the nation, also has it’s far share of homicides, and you’d be right.

This year, Pennsylvania finally relinquished it’s title as the state with the most Black homicides, now we’re in second place behind Missouri. Most people credit Philly for that dubious distinction, but last year Pittsburgh saw it’s number of murders increase by 41%. To make matters even worse, Pittsburgh Police’s homicide clearance rate dropped to it’s second lowest rate in a decade. Plus the city’s new crime prevention program called, “Pittsburgh’s Initiative to Reduce Crime” is already being labeled a failure.

According to the New Pittsburgh Courier:

“The average homicide victim in 2010 was a 33–year-old Black male with four prior arrests, most likely shot on the North Side, in the Hill District or the East End with a 9mm semi-automatic pistol in the early morning hours of a Saturday in July. The average shooter was a 29-year-old Black male with four prior arrests. The motive was likely retaliation. And according to the clearance-rate data, there is a 46 percent chance that he is still at large.”

This is why we decided to dedicate our latest video to the problem of violence in our community. City of Steel was filmed on Pittsburgh’s Northside at, Northview Heights housing project, Allegheny County General Hospital, Zone No.1 Police Station, Union Dale Cemetery, and the newly reopened state prison, SCI Pittsburgh. City of Steel was produced by Rel!g!on and directed by Paradise Gray.